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  Educators Course Syllabi Law, Rubin- International Legal Order

International Legal Order-Law. Law 200

Tufts University, The Fletcher School Of Law And Diplomacy, Fall Term 1996

Professor Alfred P. Rubin

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The following general works will be cited in assignment sheets by the authors' names only.

Required Texts:

  • William Bishop, International Law Cases And Materials (3rd Ed.) (Boston, 1971).
  • James L. Brierly, The Law Of Nations (6th Ed.,Waldock) (Oxford 1963).
  • Herbert Briggs, The Law Of Nations (2d Ed.) (New York 1952).
  • Leo Gross, Ed., International Law On The Twentieth Century (New York 1969).
  • Lauterpacht, Oppenheim's International Law, Vol. I (8th Ed. 1955) And Vol. II (7th Ed. 1952).
  • Jennings & Watts, Oppenheim's International Law, Vol. I (9th Ed. 1992).
  • Oliver, Firmage, Blakesley, Scott & Williams (Cited As Ofbsw),The Inter-National Legal System (4th Ed.) -(New York, 1995).
  • Thomas Buergenthal And Harold Maier, Public International Law In A Nutshell (2nd ed.) (West Publishing Co. 1989) is not cited, but is inexpensive and useful for quick reference and review.
  • Everybody should get a collection of documents with the UN Charter, Statute of the International Court of Justice, 1969 Vienna Convention on The Law of Treaties, and the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations. Xerox might be cheaper than a bound set. The most recent, decent paper-covered selections is probably OFBSW's Documentary Supplement, 1995 (866 pp., I don't know the price). There are many competitors; all are acceptable.
  • Ian Brownlie, Basic Documents In International Law (4th ed., Oxford 1995) ($24.95 paperback) is frequently cited, but misses a lot of vital documents.

I. Introduction: What is International Law?

A. International Society

1. What is "Society?"

2. What is "International?"

3. What is "Law?"

  • a. Powers and rights
  • b. Written law and custom
  • c. Municipal Law and International Law

4. International Law in action: Talleyrand and Clausewitz.

  • a. Harold Nicolson, The Congress Of Vienna,140-144 (1946, Compass Books ed. 1961).
  • b. Clausewitz, On War, I.2, 9-10 (1832, Penguin ed. 1968, pp. 101, 108-109).

5. The law-making process: Oliver Wendell Holmes on the Common Law.

B. The Nature of the International Legal System

1. The Usual Misconceptions:

  • a. Robert Bork, "The Limits of International Law,"The National Interest 1-10 (Winter 1989/90);
  • b. Alfred P. Rubin, Correspondence (and Bork's rebuttal), The National Interest 122-124 (Spring 1990).

2. Clive Parry, The Sources And Evidences Of International Law 1-27, (Oceana 1965).

3. Sir Arthur Watts, "The International Rule Of Law," 36 German Yearbook Of International Law 15-45 (1993).

C. The Evolution of the International Legal System

1. Livy, The Early History Of Rome, V.36-37, 48 (in Penguin Classics ed. pp. 381-383, 394-395).

2. Gross, The Peace of Westphalia: 1648-1948, in 42 AJIL 20-41 (1948) (also in Gross 25-46).

3. Arthur Nussbaum, A Concise History Of The Law Of Nations (2d, revised ed., New York 1954), xi-xiii, 144-185, 291--306.

II. Who Determines "The Law?"

A. Legal Advisers

1. Ronald Macdonald, "The Role of the Legal Adviser of Ministries of Foreign Affairs," 156 Hague Recueil (1977, III) 377 at 385-413, 449-475.

2. Rubin, "Review of Henkin, How Nations Behave" (2d ed.) in 12 Vanderbilt J., Transnational Law, 809-815 (1979).

3. Richard A. Falk, The Status Of Law In International Society (Princeton 1970), 447-469.

4. Rubin, "Order and Chaos".., 77(3) Michigan Law Review 336-346 (1979).

5. Ellickson, Order Without Law (1991) 280-286.

B. Policy-Makers

1. The Trent Affair, 7 Moore, Digest 768-779, 626--630.

2. Shawcross, Sideshow, 70-71, 142, 156, 219, 320, 390 (1979) (paper ed.).

3. Grenada Correspondence: 25 IPN 19-26 (1984); 26 IPN 27 (1984); 27 IPN 23-25 (1984).

4. John Norton Moore, "The Legal Tradition And The Management Of National Security," In Michael Reisman & Burns Weston,Toward Order And Human Dignity (New York 1976), 321--364.

C. Courts

1. National Courts

  • a. Mortensen v. Peters (1906), Bishop 84-90, Briggs 52--57.
  • b. Challoner v. Day and Zimmer-man, 512 F.2d 77 (1975) esp. 78- 82; on appeal reversed, 96 S.Ct. 167 (1975).

2. International Tribunals

  • a. ICJ Statute Articles 36, 38 and 59.
  • b. Hersch Lauterpacht, The Function Of Law In The International Community (Oxford 1933) 26-31, 34-48.

D. International Organizations

1. U.N. Charter, Chapters II, III, IV, V, IX, X, XI, XIII, XIV, XV and XVI.

2. Gross, "Sources of Universal International Law," in Anand, ed., Asian States And The Development Of Universal International Law (1972) 189-212, also in Gross, Essays 139-155 (1984).

3. Rosalyn Higgins, The Development Of International Law Through The Political Organs Of The United Nations 1-10 (Oxford 1964).

E. Public Opinion

1. Thomas M. Franck & Edward Weisband, Word Politics (Oxford 1971), 33-47, 70-113.

2. Bosch, Judgment On Nuremberg, (U. of North Carolina 1970), 87-116.

3. Rubin, "The Hostages Incident: The United States and Iran," 1982 Yearbook Of World Affairs, 213 at 218-224 (1982).

III. Meshing Theory and Reality

A. National Lobbies

1. A.L.I., Restatement Of The Foreign Relations Law Of The United States (Third), sec. 201 (pp. 72-76).

2. Jennings & Watts, Vol. I, pp. 204-208, 330-333, 339-341.

3. Schwarzenberger 42-46, 65-71.

4. Bishop, 330-333.

5. The Helena, 4 Ch. Rob. 3 (1801) (Bishop 301-303).

6. Salimoff & Co. v. Standard Oil of New York (1933) 262 N.Y. 220 (also in Briggs 165-168, Bishop 373375).

B. Governments

1. The Arantzazu Mendi, [1939] A.C. 256 (Briggs 142145).

2. The Tinoco Arbitration (1923), 1 RIAA 369-399. esp. pp. 376-389, 393-399. (These versions are condensed rather too much: Bishop 386-392; Briggs 197- 203.)

C. "Recognition"

1. Bishop 339-343, 351-354.

2. Brierly 137-161.

3. U.S. v. Pink, 315 U.S. 203 (19-42) (Bishop 376--383; Briggs 174-190.

4. Hans Kelsen, "Recognition in International Law," 35 AJIL 604 (1941) (also in Gross 589-601).

IV. Objectivity and The System

A. The International Court

1. Justiciability

  • a. Adv. Op. on the Eastern Carelia Case, PCIJ, Ser. B No. 5 (1923) (Bishop 74-75).
  • b. The Monetary Gold Case (U.K. v. Italy) ICJ Reports 1954 19 at pp. 25-27, 30-33.

2. Standing: Adv. op. on Reparation for Injuries Suffered in the Service of the United Nations, ICJ Reports 1949 (Bishop 233-240; Briggs 85-93).

3. Bindingness

  • a. Adv. op. on Certain Expenses of the United Nations, ICJ Reports 1962 (Bishop 262-281).
  • b. Nelson, "International Law and U.S. Witholding of Payments to International Organizations," 80 AJIL 973-983 (1986).

B. Other United Nations Organs

1. U.N. Charter, Chapter XII.

2. UNSC Resolutions 264 (1969), 269 (1969), and 276 (1970).

3. Adv. Op. on the Legal Consequences for States of Continued Presence of South Africa in Namibia, ICJ Reports 1971, 10 ILM 677 (1971) esp. pp. 689 (para. 44)-716; Separate Opinion of Judge Dillard at p. 748, esp. pp. 748-750, 779-775; Dissenting Opinion of Judge Gros 795 at pp. 810 (para. 19)-829.

C. Regional Groupings

1. Asylum Case, ICJ Reports 1951; Briggs, The Colombia-Peruvian Asylum Case and Proof of Customary International Law, 45 AJIL 728-731 (1951).

2. North Sea Continental Shelf Cases, ICJ Reports 1969, digested in 63 AJIL 591-636 (1969).

D. The Objective Elements of "Natural Law"

1. Hersch Lauterpacht, Private Law Sources And Analogies Of International Law (London 1927, reprinted 1970), 31-42, 60-87.

2. Bishop 40-42.

3. Italy (Gentini) v. Venezuela, Ralston, Venezuelan Arbitrations Of 1903 720 (1904) (Bishop 43-46).

4. Wolfgang Friedmann, The Use of "General Principles" in the Development of International Law, 57 AJIL 279-299 (1963).

5. Mark Janis, "The Ambiguity of Equity in International Law," 9(1) Brooklyn J. Of Int'l Law 7-34 (1983).

V. Legislation

A. International Legal Limits to National Jurisdiction

1. The Lotus Case, PCIJ Ser. A, No. 10 (1927) (including dissents) (Bishop 536-551; the version in OFBSW 140-146 omits Moore's important dissent).

2. Hersch Lauterpacht, The Function Of Law In The InternaTional Community (Oxford 1933), 51-104, esp. pp. 51-65, 94-96.

3. Banco Nacional de Cuba v. Sabbatino, 376 U.S. 398 (1964) (in Bishop 877-898; OFBSW 627-635).

B. Publicists and Intrusive Reality

1. Clive Parry, The Sources And Evidences Of International Law (Oceana 1965), pp. 103-108.

2. Brierly pp. 65-68.

3. West Rand Central Gold Mining Co., Ltd. v. The King, [1905] 2 K.B. 391 (Briggs 218-222).

4. T.O. Elias, "Modern Sources of International Law," in Friedmann, Henkin & Lissitzyn, eds., Transnational Law In A Changing Society (Columbia 1972), pp. 34-69.

5. Sir Gerald Fitzmaurice, "Some Problems Regarding the Formal Sources of International Law," in Symbolae Verzijl(The Hague 1958), pp. 153-176.

VI. The "Positivist" Synthesis

A. Autointerpretation

1. Rubin, "The Status of Rebels and The Geneva Conventions of 1949," 21 ICLQ 472-496 (1972).

2. Gross, ö"States as Organs of International Law and the Problem of Autointerpretation," in Lipsky, ed., Law And Politics In The World Community (Univ. of Cal. Press 1953), pp. 59-88; also in Gross, Essays, 367-397 (1984).

B. The Reserved Domain and The Political Limits to International Adjudication

1. James L. Brierly, The Basis Of Obligation In International Law 81-92 (Oxford 1958).

2. The Norwegian Loans Case, ICJ Reports 1957 9 at 18-28 and Separate Opinion of Judge Lauterpacht at pp. 34, 43-59, 63-66 (briefed in OFBSW 48-51).

3. The United States and the ICJ: Nicaragua v. U.S., 79(2) AJIL 423-430 (1985) (briefed in part in OFBSW 53-57).

  • a. The current United States position: 80(1) AJIL 163-165 (1986) (also in OFBSW 63-66).

VII. Summary

A. Neo-Positivism and Neo-Naturalism

1. The classical origins

  • a. Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics 1134b18-1135a4 and 1137b5-1138a3, in The Politics Of Aristotle (E. Barker ed. and transl.) Appendix II at pp. 365, 368-9.
  • b. Cicero, De Republica III,xxii,33, Loeb ClassicalBookstore ed. at pp, 210 (Latin)-211(English). The English translation is misleading -- e.g., the word "sin."

2. Hans Kelsen, "The Essence of International Law," in Deutsch & Hoffman, The Relevance Of International Law (Cambridge 1968), pp. 85-92.

3. Charles De Visscher, Theory And Reality In Public International Law (revised edition, Corbett ed., Princeton 1968), pp. 63-68, 89-101.

4. H.L.A. Hart, The Concept Of Law (Oxford 1961), pp. 208--231.

5. Wilfred Jenks, The Prospects Of International Adjudication (London 1963), pp. 617-662 (scan).

6. Rubin, Enforcing the Rules of International Law, 34(1) Harvard Int'l L. J. 149-161 (1993).

7. Leland Goodrich, Edvard Hambro & Anne Simons, Charter Of The United Nations (3rd and revised ed., Columbia U. Press, 1969), pp. 133-141.

8. Brierly pp. 78-86.

B. MIDTERM EXAMINATION

VIII. What Statements of Norms are Binding?

A. Treaties

1. The Bible: Deuteronomy 20:10-18, Joshua 9:1-27.

2. 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, esp. arts. 3, 6-8, 18-19, 26-27, 31-32, 34--38, 43, 46.

B. Unilateral Acts and Promises

1. "Ihlen Declaration" in Eastern Greenland Case, Bishop 114-117.

2. Case Concerning the Temple of Preah Vihear (Cambodia v. Thailand), ICJ Reports 1962 6 at 15-37 and concurring opinions of Judge Alfaro at pp. 39-43 and of Judge Fitzmaurice at pp. 62-65.

3. French Promises in Nuclear Tests Case, ICJ Reports 1974 at 266(para. 36)-272.

4. Rubin, "The International Legal Effects of Unilateral Declarations," 71(1) AJIL 1-30 (1977).

C. Invalidity and Termination of Treaties

1. 1969 Vienna Convention arts. 42, 48-53, 61-62, 64, 69-75;

2. Alfred Verdross, Jus Dispositivum and Jus Cogens in International Law, 60 AJIL 55-63 (1966) (also in Gross 217-225).

3. Margery Whiteman, Jus Cogens In International Law 7(2) Georgia J. Of Int'l. Law 609-626 (1977).

IX. Legal Bases of the International Order

A. Nationality -- Individuals

1. Basis for international Claims:

  • a. "Wiltz" (Delrieu) claim, majority and Aldis opinions, 3 John Bassett Moore, International Arbitrations... (1898) 2243 at 2246-2250.
  • b. "Morrison" claim, id. 2325-2327.

2. Nationality Decrees in Tunis and Morocco, PCIJ Ser. B, No. 4 (1923) Parts II-IV.

3. Mergi Case (U.S. v. Italy), 14 RIAA 236 (Bishop 508-512; OFBSW 695-700).

4. Nottebohm Case, ICJ Reports 1955, (Bishop 492-497; OFBSW 685-693).

5. Restatement (Third) Of The Foreign Relations Law Of The United States (1987) Secs. 211-213 (at pp. 114-132).

B. Territory

1. Brierly, pp. 162-173.

2. Restatement (Third) Of The Foreign Relations Law Of The United States (1987) Secs. 402 & 403.

3. "Delagoa Bay Railway Concession Correspondence of 1889-1899," 6 Moore, International Law Digest (1906) 647-649; 5 British Digest Of Int'l. Law 535-561 (scan), esp. p. 558-560 (read) (1965).

4. Dickson Car Wheel Co. Case (U.S. v. Mexico) (1931) 4 UNRIAA 669-688.

5. Oscar Chinn Case (U.K. v. Belgium) (1934) PCIJ Ser. A/B, No. 63.

X. Limits to Jurisdiction and Conflicting Prescriptions

A. Sovereign Immunity and Act of State

1. Jurisdiction

  • a. The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of 1976; 22 U.S.C. secs. 1330, 1602-1606, 1609-1611, in 15 ILM 1388-1392 (1976); also in 71 AJIL 595-601 (1977).
  • b. U.S. ex rel. Mayo v. Satan et al. (D.C.W.D.Pa.) (1971).

2. Choice of Law

  • a. The Hickenlooper "Sabbatino" Amendment, 22 U.S.C. sec. 2370(e)(1) & (2).
  • b. Substantive Bases for International Claims, 70(2) AJIL 350 (1976).

3. Enforcement: Duff Development Co. v. Government of Kelantan, [1924] A.C. 797 (briefed in Briggs 134139; analyzed in Alfred P. Rubin, Piracy, Paramountcy And Protectorates (Kuala Lumpur 1974), 146- 155).

B. Conflicts of Jurisdiction

1. American Banana Co. v. United Fruit Co., 213 U.S. 347 (1909) (in Briggs 517-520; OFBSW 244-246).

2. U.S. v. ICI, 105 F. Supp. 215 (S.D.N.Y. 1952).

  • a. BNS v. ICI, [1953] 1 Ch. 19, [1952] 2 All E.R. 780; appealed [1955] 1 Ch. 37, [1954] 3 All E.R. 88 (Ch.).

3. Mannington Mills Inc. v. Congoleum Corp. (Ct. App. 3rd Cir. 1979) 595 F. 2d 1287.

4. Timberlane Lumber Co. v. Bank of America, (Ct.App. 9th Cir. 1984) 749 F. 2d 1378 (OFBSW 239-234).

XI. Immunities from Territorial Jurisdiction

A. Diplomatic and Consular Exchanges

1. Barbuit's Case (1737) in Briggs 819-820.

2. The Elkton Incident, 4 Green Hackworth, International Law 515 (Washington 1942).

3. Codification:

  • a. 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Intercourse and Immunities, esp. Arts. 3, 9, 22-34, 42 (Also in Bishop 714--719).
  • b. Ernest Kerley, "Some Aspects of the Vienna Conference on Diplomatic Intercourse and Immunities," 56 AJIL 88-129 (1962) (also in Gross 438-480).

4. Practice after 1961

  • a. Persinger v. Iran, rehearing (Ct. App., D.C.) (1984) in 23(2) ILM 384-392.
  • b. Bradley Larschan, "The Abisinito Affair . . .," 26 Columbia J. Of Transnat'l L. 283-295 (1988).

B. Military Forces and International Organizations

1. The Schooner Exchange v. McFaddon, 7 Cranch 116 (1812), briefed in Bishop 659-662.

2. "NATO Status of Forces Agreement," TIAS 2846, 4(2) UST 1792, Arts. 7 and 8.

3. Reid v. Covert, 354 U.S. 1 (1957) esp. pp. 6-41, dissent at pp. 78-90 (in 77 S. Ct. 1222 at pp. 1225-1243, dissent at pp. 1262-1266).

4. U.N. Headquarters Agreement of 26 June 1947, including Annex 2, in 22 U.S.C.A. sec. 287 at pp. 239-246.

  • a. U.N. Privileges and Immunities, TIAS 6900, ratified 15 April 1970, and U.S Reservation.

XII. Areas of Unavoidable Cooperation

A. The Seas

1. Alfred P. Rubin, "Evolution and Self Defense at Sea," 7 Thesaurus Acroasium 107-139 (1977).

2. The Corfu Channel Case (Merits), ICJ Reports 1949, briefed in L.C. Green, International Law Through The Cases (2d ed. 1959) 181-191.

3. The current state of codification:

  • a. UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, Montego Bay, 10 December 1982, UN Doc. A/Conf.62/122 arts. 2, 3, 10, 17-20, 33, 37-39, 49, 52-53, 55-58, 86-87, 94-95, 101, in 21(6) ILM 1261 sq. (1982).
  • b. Reagan Statement of 10 March 1983, 22(2) ILM 464-465 (1983).

4. Wildenhus's Case, 120 U.S. 1 (1887) (in Bishop 606- 609; OFBSW 310-313).

B. Airspace and Outer Space

1. 1944 Chicago Convention, TIAS 1591, 3 Bevans 944, Preamble and arts. 1-3.

2. The 1963 Tokyo Convention, TIAS 6768, 20 UST 2941,arts. 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 13, 16.

3. The 1970 Hague Convention, TIAS 7192, 22 UST 1641, ars. 1, 2, 4, 6-8.

4. Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, 27 January 1967,TIAS 6347, 18 UST 2410 (also in Bishop 439-443).

C. More Delicate Matters - Extradition

1. United States Constitutional Problems?

  • a. U.S. ex rel. Bloomfield v. Gengler; Ettinger v. Ferrandina, 507 F. 2d 925 (1974).
  • b. The Soering Case, European Court of Human Rights, 28 ILM 1063-1108 (1989), esp. paras. 11- 18, 20-22, 80-81, 92, 111 (pp. 1071-1075, 1089- 1090, 1093 and 1100-1011).

2. U.S. v. Humberto Alvarez-Machain, 112 S.Ct. 2188 (1992) (31(4) ILM 902-918 (1992), OFBSW 195-206).

XIII. International Recourse when Disagreements Persist

A. Peaceful Settlement

1. U.N. Charter, chapters I, VI and VIII.

2. Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations..., UNGA Res. 2625 (XXV) adopted 24 October 1970.

3.Alfred P. Rubin," Historical and Legal Background of the Falkland/Malvinas Dispute," in Alberto Coll & Anthony Arends, eds., The Falklands War 9-21 (-1985).

  • a. Douglas Kinney, "Anglo-Argentine Diplomacy and The Falklands Crisis," in id. 81-105.

4. Chris N. Okeke, Controversial Subjects Of Contemporary International Law 175-177 (1974).

5. Thomas M. Franck, "The Stealing of the Sahara," 70(4) AJIL 694- 721 (1976).

B. Permissable Recourse to Military Force

1. The Naulilaa Incident, Bishop 903-904.

2. The Destruction of the Caroline, 2 Moore, International Law Digest, (Washington 1906) 409-414; Bishop 916-919.

3. Myres Mcdougal And Norbert Schlei, The Hydrogen Bomb Tests In Perspective..., In Mcdougal And Associates, Studies In World Public Order (Yale 1960) 763-843, esp. pp. 773-779, 812-817.

4. SC Debate on Entebbe Raid, in 13(8 Part I) UN Chronicle 15-21, 67-76 (Aug.-Sept. 1976).

  • a. Jeffrey Sheehan, The Entebbe Raid, 1(2) The Fletcher Forum, 135-153 (1977).

C. The Law of War

1. The Jus ad Bellum

  • a. League of Nations Convenant, Articles 10-12.
  • b. 1928 Pact of Paris, Text in Bishop 912.
  • c. "Aggression," UNGA Res. 3314 (XXIX) 14 December 1974, esp arts. 1, 3, 5 and 7.
  • d. Alfred P. Rubin, Jus ad Bellum and Jus Cogens: Is Immoral-ity Illegal? in Delisen & Tanja, eds., Humanitarian Law And Armed Conflict 595-612 (1991).

2. The Jus in Bello

  • a. The Lieber Code of 1863, arts. 13-17, 20-22, 27-30, 40-41, 44, 47.
  • b. The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, in The Laws and Customs of War, Preamble, arts. 1-2, Annex arts. 1-3.
  • c. 1949 Geneva Convention Relative to The Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, arts. 1-5, 13, 144-148.

3. Individual Responsibility

  • a. Crimes against the Peace, etc., Bishop 1016-1018.
  • b. U.S. Senate, Ex. Rept. No. 93-5,

International Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 93rd Cong., 1st Sess. (March 6, 1973).

  • c. Demjanjuk v. Petrovsky, 776 F. 2d 571 (Ct. App. 6th Cir.) (1985), (OFBSW 929-936; briefed in 80 AJIL 656-658 (1986).
  • d. Alfred P. Rubin, "An International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia?", 6 Pace Int'l L. Rev. 7-17 (Winter 1994).

XIV. Human Rights

A. Minimum Standards of Justice; Denial of Justice

1. Positivist Theory

  • a. British Law Officers Opinion in the Silesian Loan Case, 1753, in 2 A.D. Mcnair, International Law Opinions (Cambridge 1956) 303-304.
  • b. Don Pacifico claim: 2 Mcnair, International Law Opinions 238-241;
  • c. United States (Rosa Gelbtrunk claim) v. Salvador (1902), in Briggs 713-715.

2. Naturalist Theory

  • a. Emerich De Vattel, The Law Of Nations (1758) Book II ch. VI (pp. 136-139);
  • b. United States (Roberts Claim) v. United Mexican States (1926), 4 RIAA 77-81 (Briggs 549-552).
  • c. United States (Chattin Claim) v. United Mexican States(1927) 4 RIAA 282-302 (Briggs 666-674: the brief in Bishop omits several key paragraphs).

B. Expanded International Purview over Human Rights

1. 13(4) U.N. Chronicle 50-52 (1976).

2. 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights

  • a. 1966 International Covenants on Civil and Political Rights, and on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, in Bishop 465-486.

3. Helsinki Declaration of 1 August 1975, Preamble, Part 1(a) Secs. VI, VII, VIII, X, Final Resolution in 14(5) ILM 1292 at pp. 1324-1325 (1975).

4. Rubin, "Are Human Rights Legal?," 20 Israel Yearbook On Human Rights 45-70 (1991).

C. Res Inter Alios Acta - Jus Standi and Human Rights

1. South West Africa Cases (Ethiopia and Liberia v. South Africa), Preliminary Objections, ICJ Reports 1962 319 at pp. 329-347 and dissenting opinion of Judges Spender and Fitzmaurice at pp. 467-468; Second Phase in ICJ Reports 1966 3, majority opinion at pp. 25-51.

2. ILC Draft on State Responsibility, Art. 19, in 18(6) ILM 1568 at 1573 (1979).

END