In this year, the South Africa Atomic Energy Board is established.
The Military and Political Consequences of Atomic Energy by P. M. S. Blackett argues that the United Kingdom cannot achieve an independent nuclear deterrent. As a result, the government blacklists Blackett for over a decade.
The U.S. and Great Britain revoke their wartime pact on nuclear cooperation.
Soviet forces occupy Prague, the capital city of Czechoslovakia.
British physicist Klaus Fuchs delivers the "classical super" design for the construction of the hydrogen bomb to Soviet secret police agent, Alexander Feklisov.
Joint Chiefs of Staff brief President Truman on "Half-moon," their nuclear war plan. The plan calls for dropping 50 atomic bombs on 20 Russian cities; Truman disapproves.
Soviet physicist, Igor Tamm, enlists his graduate student Andrei Sakharov to study the fusion problem.
Reactor A, at the Mayak complex near Chelyabinsk, reaches full criticality, enabling the USSR to produce plutonium.
The first Soviet plutonium production reactor becomes operational at Kyshtym in the Ural Mountains.
The USSR blocks its rail and road connections to West Berlin.
Soviet physicist, Andrei Sakharov, begins development of the "Layer Cake" concept for the hydrogen bomb.
General Curtis LeMay assumes command of the U.S. Strategic Air Command.